Cabbage – Brassica oleracea

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Cabbage – Brassica oleracea

Cabbage is a leafy vegetable plant known since ancient times as a food. The leaves are eaten raw or cooked, and they are green, whitish green, or red. The leaves of the plant gather and wrap around a terminal bud to form the head. It belongs to the cruciferous family Brassicaceae, the scientific name is Brassica oleracea. Var .capitata L. and the English name is Cabbage (Jim and Napier, 2006).

Cabbage is an important food substance with a high nutritional value. They are rich in iron, phosphorous and calcium. Each 100 gm of Cabbage leaves contains 94% of water, 20g of carbohydrates, a low protein content at a ratio of 1 to 2.5%, sugars 6%, stable oil and minerals such as iron. 260 mg, calcium 42 mg and phosphorous 41 mg, as well as vitamins K, B1, B2, B3 and B6, an anti-ulcer agent known as vitamin U and ascorbic acid (Mulamba et al., 2002).

Studies of healthy food have confirmed that cabbage is a cleanser for the digestive tract and liver which dissolves fat in the body, a removes cholesterol, and balances blood sugar and pressure. Due to the lack of protein and fat content in cabbage, it is low in calories, so it is considered one of the important foods to reduce weight (AL-Rawahy et al., 2004).

Southern and Western Europe is the original home of cabbage, as it grows wild on the coasts of England, Denmark, northwest France and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Historians have pointed out that it has been planted since ancient times in Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley (Al-Muhammadi and Al-Mishal, 1989). The suitable climatic conditions for the growth of halana is a humid, moderately cold climate, as the ideal temperatures for the growth of halana are at a rate of 17º C, and the temperature range between 10 and 24º ºC is very suitable for plant growth and the formation of mature heads of high quality. It was found that some cultivars of cabbage bear short freezing times when temperatures are -6 ºC, and other varieties resist freezing up to -10 ºC.

Matlab, (1980) emphasized that the cabbage can withstand frost waves, and that whenever the weather is cold during its cultivation, the taste of the leaves of the plant will be sweet, as the plant cells work to convert the starch into sugar to protect the plant from the cold, which means that the taste of the leaves will be sweet when picked . When the plant is exposed to freezing for a long period exceeding thirty days and at a temperature of -5 ºC, the plant is damaged and production decreases (Jim and Napier, 2006). The duration of the growth of the phalanx varies depending on the climate conditions and the type of plant grown, as the period of cabbage growth ranges from 90 to 120 days, and it was found that the best qualitative production of the heads of the grouse was when the period of growth was between 120 to 140 days (Sanders, 2007).

Cabbage is grown in various types of soils, whether they are light or heavy soils or organic soils. Light soils give early crop production, while heavy soils give late crop production. The best production is in fertile soils with good drainage and aeration and sufficient preparation for water requirements (Herman, 2004).

The production is affected by the moisture content of the soil, as the production decreases when the plant is exposed to moisture stress, as well as when the soil is waterlogged (Wene and White, 1953). According to Sammis and Wu, (1989) the decrease in soil moisture content affected the quality of the yield of cabbage and lettuce plants in a negative way, so the cabbage production decreased significantly and the head size decreased. The acidity of the soil affected the yield of the halophyte it was found that the growth and production of the heads increased when the acidity of the soil was between 5.5 and 6.5. Cabbage is considered one of the medium plants that tolerates salinity, as the increase in salinity reduces the production, as it was found that the salinity increase from 2.8 to 12 decisiemens. M-1 has reduced production by 100%.

Cabbage is cultivated in the field in the form of stripes or grooves, and the distance between the stripes or grooves depends on the size of the halana head at maturity. The distance between the planting lines is from 0.3 to 0.5 m for the heads of the halana with a weight less than 1.5 kg, and the distance increases to 0.9 m for the heads with a weight 3 kg. An optimum yield of succulent heads can be obtained when the planting density is between 30,000 to 40,000 plants. ha-1. Lahana is grown in two ways, directly in the field, using 3 kg of seeds per hectare. Another method is to plant the seeds in the nursery or nursery, and then transfer them to the field, and this is one of the early methods of cultivation (Herman, 2004). Lahana plant is characterized by slow growth and development during the first half of the vegetative growth stage. This stage takes 50 days, followed by the stage of formation of heads and then the stage of maturity. Here, the weight of the plant doubles every 9 days. When the formation of heads begins, there is a sudden decrease in the rate of opening and spreading of the developing leaves at the same time, the process of forming new leaves continues. This results in the formation of a cortex that surrounds the head consisting of the old leaves and inward from them the new leaves grow.

The shape of the head of the halana differs according to the type of plant, including pointed heads with a serrated end, spherical heads, or with a circular circumference. The color of the tongue is green or red.

The production of brush heads reached 25-35 tons. ha-1 under gusts of rain. While production reached 85 tons. ha-1 When good management is followed in terms of water supply when using irrigation methods suitable for plant growth and meeting its water needs and providing the prepared nutrients through fertilization, in the stage of maturity and harvest, it may happen that the heads of the halana are small, and this is a result of a decrease in the supply of water to the plant in The two stages of head formation and the last stage of the crop growth period (Doorenbos and Kassam, 1979). The appropriate planting date for Lahana seeds in the nursery is during the month of August until the end of September. and make up

The distance between one plant and another is 0.4-0.5 m, and the distance between one line and another is 0.7 to 0.8 m (Jim and Napier, 2006).

Sanders and Kemble, (2000) mentioned that irrigation dates depend on the prevailing climatic conditions and soil type. Usually, seedlings are irrigated after planting in the permanent field after three days, and the irrigations are close in the beginning of the season, after which the irrigations diverge. The water requirements of Lahana plants vary even in one growing season, as it ranges between 350 and 500 mm. Season 1 (Doorenbos and Kassam, 1979 and Suresh, 2008). The water consumption of Lahana plant in Iraq was estimated by Rovdkhoz, (1982). The water consumption amounted to 447 mm for a growth period of 186 days under Al Maroz irrigation system. AL-Rawahy et al., (2004) conducted a study to assess the lack of water needs of Lahana plant and its effect on the yield of the plant, taking the size of the Lahana head, leaf area, growth and depth of roots as a function to evaluate the yield. They used two methods of plant irrigation, surface drip irrigation and subsurface drip irrigation. The study showed that the water needs For plants, it varied according to irrigation methods, which was reflected in the yield assessment functions, and the water needs of Lahana plant reached 6 and 4 mm. Day-1 for surface and subsurface drip irrigation methods, respectively. Between Daugovish and Cahn, (2007) that the water needs of Lahana plant have varied according to different irrigation methods, climatic conditions, and soil moisture conditions. The researchers compared the water needs of Lahana plant under the influence of different irrigation methods, as three irrigation methods were applied, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, and merooz irrigation. The water requirements of Lahana plants during the growing season amounted to 1857, 2476 and 3714 m3. ha-1 for the three irrigation methods, respectively.

Jim and Napier, (2006) identified the maturity and harvest mark of halana plants which is leaf curling and formation of hard and shiny heads depending on the variety and the appropriate size. Harvesting is done weekly by cutting off the mature heads. The amount of yield depends on the plant variety, soil type, service and prevailing climatic conditions.

Wene and White (1953) mentioned that the root system of the plant is very branched, especially in the upper 0.3 m of the soil, and the roots spread to a distance of up to 0.9 m and the roots are fibrous. Ben Mutee’ (1976) The root is spiky and dies after transplanting. Therefore, the stolons depend for their nutrition on fibrous roots, most of which are deeper than 0.6 m, as well as lateral fibrous roots, most of which do not go deep to more than 0.3 m. While the roots extend laterally for a distance of 1.2 to 1.5 m.

Sanders and Kemble, (2000) described the leaves of the Lahana plant as being simple, large in size, fully formed, and with a short neck. Jim and Napier, (2006) referred to the botanical division of Lahana and mentioned that the division is according to maturity, as there are early, medium, or late varieties. Or according to the size of the heads, as there are small, medium or large-sized varieties. Or according to the shape of the heads, as there are varieties whose heads are round, oval, elongated or conical. Or according to the color and texture of the leaves, as there are varieties with light, dark or red leaves, and varieties with smooth or wrinkled leaves. He stressed that the growth of the lahana is linked to the availability of ready water and the appropriate moisture for growth during the period of formation of the heads, as the yield of the lahana is affected by the surrounding environmental conditions, the level of preparation of the water needs of the plant, the moisture and nutritional status of the soil, as well as the effect of the irrigation methods used in preparing the plant’s water requirements.

Doorenbos and Kassam, (1979) divided the stages of plant growth into five stages, the beginning of growth stage after germination 20-30 days, the stage of plant development 30-35 days, the final development stage 20-30 days, the maturity stage 10-20 days, and the harvest stage 10 days.

Acar and Paksoy, (2006) studied the effect of different irrigation methods on the yield yield. They took the weight and dimensions of the watering holes and the leaf area as a function of evaluating the yield of one of the watering plants. They used three irrigation methods, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and marrow irrigation. The results showed that the yield differed according to the different irrigation methods used, as drip irrigation gave the highest production, reaching 28.32 tons. ha-1, and then came sprinkler and irrigated irrigation, as the production was 20.85 and 16.04 tons. ha-1, respectively. The researchers recommended the use of micro-irrigation methods in irrigating Al-Hanaha plant because it suits the conditions of scarce water resources and lack of fallow in dry and semi-arid areas, and they confirmed that adding localized irrigation water is the best. Suresh, (2008) evaluated the yield yield under different irrigation methods, and the total plant yield was 38.97, 40.23 and 33.76 tons. ha-1 for drip, sprinkler and lawn irrigation methods, respectively.

References

AL-Kaisi, M.M., and I. Broner. 2009. Crop water use and growth stages. Colorado State University. U.S. Department of Agriculture and Colorado counties cooperating. No.4. p. 715.

AL-Kawaz, G.M., S.A. Jubboori, and S.B. Ray.1977. Irrigation requirement
of the crop for the central region of Iraq

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H.A. Abdul Rahman and M. S. AL-Kalbani. 2004. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) response to soil
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International journal of agriculture and biology. Vol.6, No.6. Pp. 1093-1096.

Acar,
B, and M. paksoy. 2006. Affect of different irrigation methods on red cabbage
(Brassica oleracea L.var. capital subvar .F. Rubra) yield and some plant
characteristics. Pakistan

Journal of Biological Sciences 9(13): 2531- 2534,
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Herman, S. 2004.
Cabbage Meister Farm Advisor, U.C. California 94720, (510) 644 – 658.

Kassam, A. and M. Smith. 2001. FAO
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Jim, M., and
T. Napier. 2006. Cabbage growing. Published by NSW department of primary
industries. State of new south Wales. ISSN 1832-6668. Replaces Agfact H8.1.27.P
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Mulamba, P., L.C. Brown, R.W. Ruggles
and J. K. Kibalama. 2002. Investigation of the optimum critical point for micro-irrigation
scheduling of cabbages. Sponsored by ASAE and CIGR Hyatt Regency Chicago,
Chicago, Illinois, USA. v. 28. Pp. 2-16.

Suresh, R. 2008. Land and water
management principles. Head department of soil and water conservation
engineering college of agricultural R.A.U. Pusa (Samastipur).Bihar. ISBN 81-8014-107-1.

Wene, G. P
and A. N. White. 1953. The cabbage root aphid. Identified by L.M. Russell,
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